Удобният и неудобният подчинен

(есе)

В идеалния случай преценката на висшестоящия към своите подчинени, по цялата верига, в една стопанска организация би трябвало да се базира на чисто обективни критерии. В този смисъл, по мое мнение, "удобен" е подчиненият, който e ефективен, тоест който стриктно, съвестно и навреме изпълнява поверените му служебни задължения. Който спазва етиката и дисциплината на компанията и който има колегиални отношения с екипа, в който работи. Който полага усилия да разбере какво точно се изисква от него, без да се бои да задава въпроси.

"Неудобен" би бил подчиненият, който системно отлага или протака извършването на поставените задачи, който закъснява за работа, пилее времето си и следователно - ресурсите на компанията, досажда на колегите си или на началника си с излишни приказки, сплетни или неуместно разказване на вицове. "Неудобен" също би бил и подчиненият, който въпреки своето усърдие и желание, е недостатъчно квалифициран и е неспособен да се справи с поверената му работа.

Професионалният ръководител се стреми към постигане на добра кохезия между индивидуалните усилия на служещите и мисията и функциите на предприятието като цяло. Той поставя ясно определени задачи и прецизира своите очаквания, като заедно с това очертава перспективите за своя подчинен.

Важен елемент е системното извършване на безпристрастна оценка за компетентността на всеки служител, като периодичността зависи от възникналата необходимост. Във всички случаи е нужно наличието на някаква оценъчна скала, която може просто да се състои от "Справя се/Не се справя" или да е по-комплицирана и да определя нивото на реализация (5, 6 или 10 степени) както като цяло, така и според даден период, или дадено задание. В много от случаите е препоръчителен предварителен разговор с подчинения, в който отново се аргументират критериите на оценяване. Добър ход би било самият подчинен да бъде помолен да направи самооценка на своето изпълнение.

Разговорите с подчинените може да се провеждат дори всеки ден, ако съществуват предпоставки за това, като стремежът е да се дадат насоки, както и мотивация за служещия. Според мен, ръководителят би трябвало да умее не само обосновано да критикува, но и да поощрява подвластните му хора, за да станат те "удобни" за него. Същевременно не бива да забравя, че самият той бива подлаган на подобна преценка.

За съжаление обаче, животът, както и междуличностните отношения в дадена организация, рядко са идеални. Не са малко мениджърите, а и мнозина от техните подчинени, които биха изтъкнали следните изисквания за "удобния" служител: Този, който

само хвали и никога не критикува началника си,

рядко е носител на лоши вести (прикривайки истината),

редовно носи кафе и изпълнява извънслужебни задачи за шефа или неговото семейство,

"докладва" какво става в офиса, кой какво "бил" казал, и т.н.

Подобни субективни стандарти може и да допринасят за ласкаенето на егото на управляващия, но те са, по мое виждане, крайно непродуктивни и нездравословни за състоянието на организацията. Най-често те водят до появата на симптоми на деморализация в работата, както и в взаимоотношенията на целия екип.

В заключение, бих искал да кажа, че искрено се надявам за в бъдеще да изградя у себе си ясен поглед и трезва преценка, независимо дали ще бъда началник или подчинен.

 

If Gold Rust, What Will Iron Do?

(есе)

  “. . . if gold rust, what then will iron do?/ For if a priest be foul in whom we trust/ No wonder that a common man should rust. . . .” is a quote from Chaucer's Canterbury tales and is allegorically spoken by the Parson.

Since long before the beginning of recorded history gold has been prised as the most precious of metals, it is a "noble" metal. Furthermore in medieval times, gold was often seen as beneficial to health. The gold crown of the kings was considered to symbolise the eternal light of heaven.

Iron, on the other hand, is a "common" or “base” metal, which easily rusts or decays with time, thus losing its lustre and initial properties. Iron was connected usually with everyday activities such as carpentry, shoeing horses, and so forth.

So obviously the quote is about values. The age old question of Light or Darkness, of choosing good or evil, following God’s commandments or disobeying them, of flesh or soul.

Gold - the highest, most beautiful and incorruptible of elements, symbolizes purity, religious faith, temperance and humility. If it can show blemishes and fade, what chance does something lesser have? In Chaucer’s work we are made aware that there are people, who in spite of their devotion to God, are unpardonably sinful. Persons of allegedly great nobility, such as the Friar and the Nun, who ought to personify piety and chastity, show the unforgivable vices of wantonness and gluttony. So who should the ordinary human beings trust? Whose example should they follow?

In this sense if gold rusts, it means that integrity could easily be defiled, and the common man would feel free to do give in to vile and carnal desires and pursuits. The priest - chosen by God and thus a bearer of “light”, should morally illuminate the lives of to the lower classes. So if he is "foul", it would be no wonder if the whole of society putrefies and falls into darkness.

ХЕЛОУИН

(есе)

Маскирането с костюми на Хелоуин е сравнително млада традиция, станала популярна в САЩ едва през 30те години на 20в. През последните няколко години тя е безкритично пренесена в България, както много други американски явления, без да се разбира култрно-историческия контекст.

Хелоуин се корени във вярвянията на древните друиди и, в същността си, е празник на мъртвите. Датата е 31 октомври. Дали е случайност, че българската Голяма задушница (денят, в който почитаме мъртвите) се отбелязва през първата събота преди Архангелов ден, 8 ноември!? Дали е слчайност, че в в Латинска Америка и Испания 31 октомври и 1 ноември са известни като Дни на мъртвите. През 853 г. сл. Хр. папа Григорий ІV утвърдил 31 октомври като ден на Вси Светии...

На всички тези празници, без изключение, се поднася храна (олицетворена в бонбони в типично американски стил), която да омилостиви духовете на починалите близки. Палят се свещи (може и в тикви), чиито пламък напомня за безсмъртието на душата и утвърждава нашата вяра. Пламъкът, или светлината, винаги е бил символ на Бога.

Навярно не е случайно, че този празник в толкова много култури се пада в началото на зимата, когато символично природата "умира"... за да се възроди отново през пролетта, около Великден. В края на есента житото, посевите и всичката беритба е прибрана  - нима това не е най-добрият момент, в който да отдадем почит на нашите предци, които хилядолетия преди нас са се грижили за нашата земя, която и до днес ни храни?

 

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION

(реферат)

Communication is commonly defined as "the exchange of thoughts, ideas, feelings, information,opinions, and knowledge". It also involves mutuality of understanding.

There are two general types of communication: verbal and non-verbal, and both share the following definitions:

  • meaningful interaction.
  • information sharing.
  • a link force.
  • understanding.
  • a fundamental requisite of life.

Some important characteristics of communication are:

  • It is a 2-way process.
  • Communication process happens between or among two or more parties. (Sender and Receiver)
  • Communication involves exchange of ideas, feelings, information, thoughts, and knowledge.
  • Communication involves mutuality of understanding between Sender and Receiver [1].

The Merriam-Webster gives the following definition of speech or verbal communication:

   1a : the communication or expression of thoughts in spoken words

     b : exchange of spoken words : conversation

   2a : something that is spoken : utterance

     b : a usually public discourse : address

   3a : language, dialect

     b : an individual manner or style of speaking

   4: the power of expressing or communicating thoughts by speaking

Oral communication is information spoken by mouth; the use of speech. Oral discourse implies communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it face to face or over the telephone. When the conversational exchange is between two people, it is called dialogue. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all also forms of oral communication. Oral communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind or where a direct interaction is required [2].

If we are to compare oral to written communication, De Vito points out that: Oral language has more communicative signals (for example, “Well, in the first place”), more orientation signals (for example, “I can't think of what to say”), and more consciousness of projection terms (for example, “It seems to me”). Since written language depends mostly on substantive content, these oral language signals are not used. Written language is more impersonal than oral language. Nominal style is more impersonal, so it is used in written language.

There are many advantages of verbal communication, especially for students of English and specifically for children, learning English. Oral communication is less rigid and more emotional, it tends to be highly personal, relaxed and spontaneous, thus appealing to the psychology of the young ones. It can also be essential in bringing children together and encouraging their group efforts and energy. Oral skills – both speaking and listening – are at the very foundation of literacy. Classroom talk helps students to learn, to reflect on what they are learning, and to communicate their knowledge and understanding [3].

Nowadays the main practical goal of studying a foreign language is to gain command of speech. At the same time this goal is a means of acquiring phonetical, grammatical and lexical knowledge of that language.

An important aspect of oral discourse is the large part that non-verbal types of communication play: “factors of intonation, pause, loudness, eye contact, gestures, context, and exploitation of motives and hidden meanings” [4].

Another significant feature of speech is that it a vocalized form of human communication. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. This is an important aspect to bear in mind, when teaching English, as the students must be trained to pronounce sounds, which do not exist in the mother tongue.

There exist a number of methodologies to couch children in oral speech. Two main skills need to be primarily mastered: listening and understanding skills; the ability to express thoughts, feelings and attitudes in verbal form. Along with these, special attention needs to be paid to their pronunciation skills. The approaches vary from the intuitive method used by many teachers to scientific methods [5], such as including the children themselves in evaluating their work or being interviewed as to the best approaches to being taught the language. As a whole almost all authors stress the necessity to take into account the child’s psychology and interests, the use of intercommunicative methods, such as dividing the class into groups, each with separate goals, the use of modern technology – especially for developing listening skills. Games, songs, quizzes are the most widely used devices to cause the child to be emotionally engaged, to create a natural fun environment and to produce a spontaneous atmosphere. Preferred themes are related to the egocentricity of the child’s way of thinking [6]: “My family”, ”My pets”, “Wild animals”, “Fruits and Vegetables”, “My favorite toys”, etc. – all of which should be put up for group or class discussion.

When couching the students in speech the main methods are:

  • The teacher pronounces a new word and the students repeat it in chorus or individually, paying attention to the specific phonetic features;
  • The teacher says a known word and the students must either translate it or show a picture, representing the meaning of the word;
  • The teacher pronounces adjectives and nouns – the pupils must pair together the relevant combinations (for exp. mother, dog, tomato / brown, good, red);
  • The teacher states a verb and a noun and asks the children to form short sentences (child run; dog bark; father work); and so on [7].

Having said all this, let me dwell on the most common mistakes children make, while learning English, and give a few examples of exercises that would assist them in mastering the correct forms.

On the phonetic level there are two main problems for Bulgarians, studying English. The sounds transcribes as: [θ]  - thirsty, nothing, math, [ð]  - this, mother, breathe, [æ] - apple, can, hat, [ʌ] - up, mother, mud, have no correlation in Bulgarian. Special phonetic exercises need to be conducted, so that the child can be trained as to the specifics of the tongue position and width of the mouth opening. Comparative exercises and examples can be given, such as the difference between:

Minimal Pairs /æ/ and /e/:

  • bad   bed
  • bag   beg
  • can    Ken
  • ham  hem
  • jam   gem
  • man  men

Examples:

Tony is a bad boy, who goes to bed late.

There is only one man who is Albert Einstein, but there are many men, who work in physics.

Minimal Pairs /æ/ and /ʌ/

  • bat    but
  • batter          butter
  • cap    cup
  • cat     cut
  • hat    hut

Examples:

A bat is nocturnal animal, but the squirrel is not.

Tony drank his cup of milk, put on his cap and left for school.

A good way to master these differences is through repetition and if possible, with the help of a computer with headphones (and microphone).

Learning the transcription of English words could, in itself, be a challenge, as in reality, the children have to gain knowledge of two new alphabets.

The second phonetic problem is that in Bulgarian voice consonants tend to be reduced to voiceless ones – “боб” is pronounced “боп. “Два часа разглеждах географския атлас. Тя беше в прекрасна рокля от атлаз.”[8]. The teacher’s task is to explain to the children that in English such reductions would change completely the meaning of a sentence.

A good exercise would be:

Say the following words aloud.

[These words all end with a voiceless consonant sound]:

mop - dock - safe - teeth - spice

[These words all end with a voiced consonant sound. Notice the length of the vowel.]

mob - dog - save - teethe - spies

Other examples are: cup – cub; frock – frog; neat - need [9], or the easy to remember: “I think this thing is not working.”

One of the commonest mistakes learners of English make, especially children, is with prepositions. Since they are liable to translate sentences or phrases from their mother tongue (Bulgarian) into English, one can get frequent occurrences of “I am sitting ON (at) the table” (Седя НА масата), It depends OF/FROM (on)…” (Зависи ОТ...), “Marry FOR somebody” (Женя се ЗА някого), and so forth.

In order to avoid such mistakes, children should methodically be taught whole phrasal verbs, not just separate words. Through repetition of one and the same phrase in different contexts, they will be able to start thinking in English and avoid the temptation to translate their sentences.

Good exercise for beginners can be found at the Reference section [10]. These exercises can be organized as group work, where one child does a sentence and the others comment, taking turns, and perhaps keeping score.

It is unexceptional for children to make mistakes with the definite and indefinite article: “a” (an) and “the”, also with their pronunciation before vowels. The teacher should find time to explain in detail the dissimilarity between: “People like money” (Хората обиат париТЕ), “The people like money” (Народът {напр. На България обеча парите}, “Most people like money” (ПовечеТО хора обичат парите), “Most of the people (in this country) like money” (ПовечеТО хора (в дадена страна) обичат париТЕ).

One of the most common mistakes children, studying English make, is not to be sure whether to use “do” or “make” – (правя), because in Bulgarian the verb is used both to mean “create” and “be about something”. Examples such as: “What are you doing?” and “What are you making?” should clarify the difference, followed by some exercises, as included in the Reference list [11].

Another common mistake is between ‘it’s” (it is) and “its” (belonging to it). This calls for an explanation of the apostrophe’s application in English, with special attention to all its uses in oral communication, where many words are shortened – “they’re; he’s; we’ll; they’d; ‘cause; your and you’re”, etc.

Other areas, that might pose difficulty are: don’t vs. doesn’t; bring vs. take; double negative (I’m NOT speaking to Nobody); Present Perfect (He has not TOOK the train); Noun and verb agreement, etc. Additional information on common mistakes in speech can be found in the Reference list [12].

I am certain one can add many other cases of the specific features of speech in English, which are particularly difficult for children to learn and actively use in communicating. Furthermore there are numerous methods of teaching speech, which can be exemplified with exercises, determining the most common mistakes children make. These however, have not been extensively dwelt upon, because of the aims and scope of this paper. My chief goal was to present the most widespread views on verbal communication, to briefly outline some methods of teaching a spoken foreign language, and more specifically to present the most obvious errors young pupils make in their attempts at mastering their second language.

I look forward to practicing as a teacher, when I will have the opportunity to test first-hand the theories I have read.

Bibliography and References

[1] Communication, Nishu Chhabra, posted on 17 April, 2009 in the Personality Development, UniversityParadise; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech

Merriam-Webster Learner’s Dictionary; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech

Speech – Wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech

Speech – The Free Dictionary; http://www.thefreedictionary.com/speech

[2] Oral Communication – Meaning, Advantages and Limitations; http://www.managementstudyguide.com/oral-communication.htm

[3] THINK LITERACY: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7-12, Oral

 Communication; http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/studentsuccess/thinkliteracy/files/Oral.pdf

De Vito, Joseph A. 1967. “A linguistic analysis of spoken and written language.” Central States Speech Journal. 81—85; http://www.sil.org/computing/catalog/support_files/lll/errataforlingualinkslibrary40/CharacteristicFeaturesOfOralAn.htm#VansnJn1965OrlTrdtnThtChcgAldn

[4] Farnsworth, Robin. 1976. “Developing a 'plain language' style.” READ 11:71—73; http://www.sil.org/computing/catalog/support_files/lll/errataforlingualinkslibrary40/CharacteristicFeaturesOfOralAn.htm#VansnJn1965OrlTrdtnThtChcgAldn

Phonetics – Wikipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonetics

[5] ИРИНА ОГНЯНОВА БАБАНОВА, Подбор на лексиката за обучението по англиски език на деца от предучилищна възраст; http://rd.swu.bg/media/9599/avtoreferat.pdf

[6] Развитие на психологията; http://www.referati.org/razvitie-na-psihologiqta/53030/ref

[7] Методика на чуждоезиковото обучение, А. Илиева, Изд. “Наука и изкуство”, 1987.

[8] Правопис на гласни и съгласни; http://reshavam.com/art/pravopis-na-glasni-i-syglasni/14519

[9] End of word voicing, http://www.englishtap.com/library/pronunci ation/word_ends.html

Common Mistakes That Students Make in English Language Contextual Learning, By Stephanie Cai; http://www.ehow.com/info_7909367_common-english-language-contextual-learning.html

[10] http://www.tolearnenglish.com/english_lessons/prepositions-beginners; http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-67930.php

http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-68260.php

[11] http://www.tolearnenglish.com/cgi2/myexam/liaison.php?liaison=_make_

http://www.better-english.com/grammar/makedo.htm

http://perso.wanadoo.es/autoenglish/gr.make.p.htm

[12] http://www.engvid.com/english-resource/50-common-grammar-mistakes-in-english/

Английски език за българи, Румяна Благоева, СофтПрес 

 

Художествено описание на кът от природата

(есе)

За мен по-красиво място от нос Калиакра няма. Проснат като гигатгски праисторически вкаменен динозавър, той цепи водата, загледан сякаш в миналото и бъдещето. Отвесните канари като стражи бдят над пенливите тюркоазено-сини води на морето и сякаш ехтят със воплите на девиците, сплели залтни коси и превърнали се в русалки заради своята вяра. Пръските къпят душата ми и ме изпълват със спокойствието на вечно дишаща природа. Колко ли моряци, попданали в гневните и неочаквани бушувания на Черно море, са намирали подслон в тихата прегръдка на залива.

Обичам да седя високо над подземното царство на скритете му пещери, където витаят духовете на моите предци и където скривам моите най-съкровени мечти, поверявайки ги на равномерното махало на вълните. Чувам кормораните, чучулигите и папуняците, чиито зов ехти само за мен. Седя, потънала в ласката на слънцето, дочувам шепота на морската шир и в уханието на степните треви сякаш предусещам вкуса на своето бъдеще и аз вярвам, че годините се стелят пред мен, както Бог е разстлал нос Калиакра за Свети Никола.

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Facebook

(есе)

Facebook is one of the “new” realities of our lives – especially of young people’s. In our age of globalization and swift development of various ways of communication, it is of paramount importance to be up-to-date with all the opportunities offered by new technology, and of course, the Internet. Naturally this, as all things in human life, has its advantages and disadvantages.

Facebooks provides the easiest and quickest way of connecting to friends and people, also of keeping up with their news. In addition, this network offers ample opportunities for making new acquaintances and hooking up with individuals or groups from all over the world, thus enabling us to widen our horizons. It is probably the most advanced and simplest way of sharing ideas and thoughts with numerous people. And last, but not least – it costs nothing!

But to my mind, virtual communication has important drawbacks too. I have found out that quite a few people I know tend to be very outgoing and fluent on Facebook, but when we meet in reality… they are hardly articulate and have practically nothing of importance to say. Hiding behind a screen may provide grounds for concealing the truth or effortlessly putting on a mask.

Although I personally am a Facebook fan and spend quite some time over the Net, I can safely say, that nothing can equal a face-to-face conversation, where you are able to see a person’s eyes, hear their voice, feel their presence, watch their gestures, even catch their smell. Isn’t that what meaningful interaction is all about?

 

 

The Death Sentence – Do you Approve or Disapprove?

(есе)

This is a very complex dilemma, which governments of different countries have determined one way or the other as a statute of law. Currently 58 nations actively practice capital punishment, and 97 countries have abolished it, although in the past it was common enough in most societies. This is also a problem closely interweaved with religion and one’s beliefs. Furthermore, it is a matter of active controversy in various countries and states. Opinions vary within a single political ideology or cultural region, not to mention different people. In the European union member states (one of them being Bulgaria), the use of capital punishment is prohibited.

For what it is worth, my opinion is that, apart from the laws of one’s country, the question is a deeply personal one. For example, if a relative or close friend of mine was brutally, physically abused and/or murdered, I cannot imagine any retribution different from an “eye for an eye”. From what I have heard, in the state of Massachusetts, where the death penalty is no longer exercised, if a child molester, a rapist or a serial killer serves a life sentence in prison, he is unexceptionally “taken care of” by his cell-mates. It seems even convicted criminals DO have some sort of moral code.

On the other hand, I quote, “the death penalty is a legal process whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime”. It does not require a very high IQ to understand that “put to death” is an euphemism for “murder” or, to phrase it in a more civilized way – “execution.”, the only difference being that it is condoned by the STATE. I am a law-abiding cictizen, but I think the question of life and death is a prerogative of God.

 

Your Thoughts on the Second World War

(есе)

For me the II WW is something from a history book – I did not witness it, neither did any of my relatives or acquaintances.

We all know or can check the facts on Wikipedia, so I shall not dwell on those.

Let me say right at the very beginning that I condemn any war, as it involves murder – no matter if it is of soldiers, or, in the worst case, of civilians. In any war our governments call upon our patriotism, our sense of duty, our integrity as citizens, our innermost feelings of love of country and of other human beings, who are close to us. What a farce!

Some would say that the II WW came about because of economic, political, territorial or other reasons. Not a few would claim that it was caused by the megalomania of one single person – Adolph Hitler. Adolph Hitler – that one person, so admired by some, so loathed by others, so made fun of by the uninitiated in historical fact.

Then again, the perspective of a Polish Jew from the Treblinka extermination camp would widely differ from that of a “hausfrau”, who has given birth to four proud achievers of “Hitler-Jugend”. Can we blame her for being a good mother? Or him, for meekly surrendering to whatever he was served? I am far from condoning what took place in the II WW, but I would like to point out that life is not black and white, as most people prefer to think.

It is one of the most shameful moments of human history that WW II, so soon after the slaughter of WW I, ever took place! God help those, who will have to explain it to future generations.

 

What is Love

(есе)

That is a pretty good question, almost as good as “What is God”. The way I see it, one can go two ways in answering it – intellectual and/or emotional.

Choosing the analytical approach, we can enumerate different forms that love can take: love for family or friends (or a pet), platonic love, love for your partner, which inevitably involves sexual elements, love for God, which has to do with faith, love for one’s self which is evidently connected to both  primal instincts – that of self-preservation and continuation of the species or propagation, love of money or possessions, which is a pretty wide-spread substitution for the “real thing”, and of course, at the other end of the spectrum, love can be impersonal – towards an ideal or goal, which one may hold dearer than life – for example: love of freedom, of the truth, and so on.

From a biological point of view, recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including pheromones, dopamine and others, which act in a manner similar to amphetamins, stimulating the brain's pleasure centre and leading to side effects such as increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. But these studies fail to explain WHY people fall in love in the first place! These scientists seem to suggest, that instead of pining away for someone we adore, we should take some amphetamines and get it over with! And, naturally, this analysis does not account for the platonic and more sublime kinds of love, that do not involve “loss of appetite”.

The emotional side of it has been felt by almost every person from their first memories onwards. Who doesn’t remember their mother’s kiss or hug, before falling asleep? Who can ever forget the warmth, felt deep in the heart and stomach, when one is in someone else’s embrace. Because love is related to all five senses, even six, including intuition – touch, smell, vision (How deep are the eyes of the loved one!), taste (The sweetness of her mouth!), hearing (Tell me, you love me!) Love means that you are ready and willing to make sacrifices for the well-being of the object of your deepest affections, it implies attachment, sharing, compassion and kindness – all of which, not by chance, are considered virtues by humanity.

So, in conclusion, I would like to assert my belief that love is not a question of chemistry, but the ultimate fulfillment of our souls, Who have been destined to inhabit our bodies on this planet.

 


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